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The VPOS around the Milky Way

by Marcel S. Pawlowski


Animated version of Figure 5 in Pawlowski et al. (2012) for talks etc.. The movies rotate the view over 360 degree, showing different objects around the Milky Way galaxy (seen edge-on, cyan line). The y-axis points towards the Galactic north pole. The 11 classical satellites are shown as yellow dots, the 13 new satellites are represented by the smaller green dots, young halo globular clusters are plotted as blue squares. The red curves connect the anchor points of streams of stars and gas, the (light-red) shaded regions illustrating the planes defined by these and the Galactic centre. Note that the stream coordinates are magnified by a factor of 3 to ease the comparison.
One can clearly see when the view is edge-on to the VPOS: The extend of all types of objects becomes minimal, also the streams align preferentially with this structure. From standard dark matter cosmology, a much more spheroidal distribution of objects around the Milky Way is expected. We therefore propose the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way to be Tidal Dwarf Galaxies.

Further Information

"The VPOS: a vast polar structure of satellite galaxies, globular clusters and streams around the Milky Way" --- M. S. Pawlowski, J. Pflamm-Altenburg, P. Kroupa, (2012), MNRAS, accepted
Please refer to this paper when using/showing the videos.

Classical satellites

plus faint satellites

plus young halo globular clusters

plus streams (3 times magnified)

Combination of all four

SPH Movies

von Ingo Thies


This archive contains animations from SPH calculations on induced brown dwarf formation. The calculations have been performed by the DRAGON code by Simon Goodwin, using a radiative transfer algorithm by Dimitris Stamatellos. See Thies et al. (2010) for more details.

Weitere Informationen

Thies, Kroupa, Goodwin, Stamatellos & Whitworth, 2010 ApJ, accepted ---   "Tidally induced brown dwarf and planet formation in circumstellar discs"


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Making counter-orbiting tidal debris

by Marcel S. Pawlowski


Movies of two galaxy interactions calculated with the code SUPERBOX++. They have been discussed in the paper "Making Counter-Orbiting Tidal Debris: The Origin of the Milky Way Disc of Satellites?". Pro- and retrograde particles (green and red, respectively) checked and marked for every step. Target galaxy particles are blue. 

Weitere Informationen:

Making counter-orbiting tidal debris - The origin of the Milky Way disc of satellites? - M. S. Pawlowski, P. Kroupa and K. S. de Boer, (2011), A&A, 532, A118


Fly-by model 5deg200vel


Fly-by model 5deg200vel


Merger models 7.5deg100vel


Merger models 7.5deg100vel